The first definite step in the movement looking towards the union of the British North American colonies, was the Charlottetown Conference, 1864. Delegates from the three Maritime Provinces met to consider the union of those provinces. At the Conference, delegates from Canada (constituting what are now the provinces of Ontario and Quebec) appeared, and urged the broadening of the discussion to cover all the provinces. Out of this meeting grew the Quebec Conference, of the same year, attended by delegates from Canada, Nova Scotia, New Brunswick, Prince Edward Island, and Newfoundland; the two latter subsequently withdrew from the movement. The Quebec Conference drew up a series of resolutions, which were made the basis of the final legislation. In 1866 delegates from the provinces met at the Westminster Hotel in London, and framed the British North America Act. The Act was passed by the Imperial Parliament, and received the queen's assent, March, 1867. It was proclaimed throughout the new Dominion of Canada, July 1, 1867. Manitoba was created a province, July 15, 1870. British Columbia joined the union, July 20, 1871; and Prince Edward Island, July 1, 1873. The provinces of Alberta and Saskatchewan were created Sept. 1, 1905.
   Index: Mc Mackenzie advocates, 104-105; Robinson reports on, 105. T History of, 59-71, 73-87; defeated in New Brunswick, 89-110; accepted by New Brunswick, 111-125; completion of, 127-132. Md History of the movement, 93; outlined by Durham, 93-95; principle adopted by British American League, 95; and by Legislature of Nova Scotia, 95; advocated by Howe and Haliburton, 96; in speech from throne, 1858, 96; Galt's speech, 96; Cartier, Galt, and Rose confer with Imperial government, 96-97; growth of the movement, 97-100; attitude of Macdonald and George Brown, 100-103; the Charlottetown Conference, 104; Quebec Conference, 104-114; legislative versus federal union, 106-110; resolution of Quebec Conference debated in Parliament, 118-119; passed by Assembly, 120; mission sent to England to confer with home government on this and other questions, 120-121; Imperial government strongly in favour of, 121; supported by Brown in Globe, 123; Monck's impatience over delays, 123-124; Macdonald's reply, 124; Westminster Conference, 125-127; British North America Act passed and receives royal assent, 127; Macdonald's letter to Lord Knutsford, 128-129; opposition to Confederation, 129; negotiations with Newfoundland, 146-147; and Prince Edward Island, 147-149; and British Columbia, 149-150. Sy Favoured at first by Lord Durham, afterwards deemed impracticable, 120. H J. W. Johnstone's speech in favour of, 174; Joseph Howe's attitude towards, 180-182, 185, 186; opposition to, 186-192; abandons opposition, 214-216; advocated by Sir Charles Tupper, 186-189; opposed by Halifax Chronicle, 189. C Cartier's connection with, 55-65; Cartier insists on federal principle, 57-58; Macdonald favours legislative union, 57; Canadian constitution compared with that of the United States, 58-61; weak points of the former, 61-62; its advantages, 62-63; opposed in Quebec, 63-64. E Only feasible solution of difficulties arising out of Union Act, 118. B Ardently championed by George Brown, x, xi; indirectly promoted by United States Civil War, xi; the British American League advocates, 38; McGee on, 129-130; founders of movement, 129; George Brown and, 130-132, 137-138, 139; Reform Conventions of 1857 and 1859 discuss question, 131, 135-138, 208, 217; Galt advocates federal union, 132-133; step towards, 133; question of defence one of forces tending towards, 142; events leading up to, 147-161; the Quebec Conference, 163-166; approval of British government, 167; the debate in Parliament, 169-179, 181-185; Quebec Resolutions passed, 185; the mission to England, 186; the question in the Maritime Provinces, 187-188; attitude of Brown and the Reform party, 199-210; first and greatest step in process of expansion, 264. BL The Toronto Churchproposes federal union of all British North American provinces, 125. P Papineau's opposition to, 199.
   See also Charlottetown Conference; Quebec Conference, 1864; Westminster Conference, 1866; Macdonald; Tupper; Brown; Howe; Cartier.
   Bib.: Whelan, Union of the British Provinces; Cauchon, Union of British North American Provinces; Howe, Organization of the Empire; McGee, Two Speeches on Union of the Provinces; Hamilton, Union of the Colonies of British North America; Pope, Confederation Documents; Rawlings, Confederation of the British North American Provinces; Parliamentary Debates on Confederation, 1865; Bourinot, Constitutional History of Canada. References to pamphlet and other material on this subject will be found in Johnson, First Things in Canada.

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